Cavitation Wastewater Treatment: Proof of Concept

Sergei
Godin1
Max
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov1,2
1
Quantum
Potential
Corporation,
State
College,
PA
16803
2
Pennsylvania
State
University,
University
Park,
PA
16802
Abstract
Wastewater
is
a
frequent
byproduct
of
farming
activity
that
presents
both
opportunities
and
problems.
The
problems
arise
from
environmental
contamination
and
greenhouse
gas
(methane)
emissions
while
opportunities
reside
in
wastewater
reuse
and
recycling.
We
propose
a
feasibility
study
focusing
on
wastewater
treatment
that
will
enable
both
the
contamination
prevention
and
the
methane-­‐free
wastewater
recycling
thus
addressing
the
important
problems
of
public
health
and
climate
change.
Wastewater
contaminants
can
be
broadly
classified
as
chemical
or
biological
in
nature.
Our
proposal
falls
into
hydrodynamic
water
treatment
category,
which
has
not
yet
been
applied
to
animal
wastewater
treatment.
We
propose
to
develop
a
device,
the
activator
pump,
which
combines
the
qualities
of
hydrodynamic
and
ultrasonic
purification
systems
and
thus
is
able
to
eliminate
most
if
not
all
contaminants
regardless
of
their
nature.
The
proposed
device
is
a
modified
version
of
a
crude
oil
cracking
pump
built
by
our
company.
The
pump
comprises
a
high-­‐RPM
perforated
rotor
designed
to
create
powerful
cavitation
with
high
acoustic
power
density.
Rapidly
rotating
rotor
creates
fluid
vortices
that
result
in
rapid
and
efficient
cavitation,
which
in
turn
eliminates
solid
contaminants,
microbial
specimen
and
radicalizes
complex
organic
compounds.
We
propose
a
water
treatment
feasibility
study
using
cavitation
pump
built
by
our
company
with
the
aim
to
discover
a
set
of
operating
parameters
leading
to
most
efficient
reduction
in
contaminants
in
treated
water.
Based
on
so
gained
knowledge
we
shall
design
and
build
an
improved
water
treatment
pump
suitable
for
commercial
use.
Intended
commercial
applications
include
cost-­‐effective
detoxification
of
wastewater
lagoons
and
for
total
wastewater
recycling.
Other
potential
applications
include
water
recycling
in
residential
septic
systems
and
treatment
of
liquid
industrial
pollutants.
Development
of
Method
and
Apparatus
for
Hydrodynamic
Resonant
Wastewater
Purification
Sergei
Godin1
Max
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov1,2
1
Quantum
Potential
Corporation,
State
College,
PA
16803
2
Pennsylvania
State
University,
University
Park,
PA
16802
Project
Narrative
Wastewater
is
a
frequent
byproduct
of
agricultural
activity,
which
presents
both
problems
and
opportunities.
The
problems
arise
from
environmental
contamination
that
the
wastewater
cause
while
opportunities
reside
in
wastewater
recycling,
which
is
particularly
important
in
generally
arid
or
high-­‐drought
areas.
We
propose
a
research
project
focusing
on
a
low-­‐cost
method
of
wastewater
treatment
that
will
enable
both
contamination
prevention
and
wastewater
recycling.
Background
Factory
Farms

a
Source
of
Water
Pollution
and
Greenhouse
Gases
Factory
farms
are
a
source
of
severe
water
pollution
[1].
Such
farms
produce
large
amounts
of
animal
waste
that
contains
significant
amounts
of
antibiotic
and
hormone
residues,
as
well
as
numerous
pathogens
such
as
phosphorus
[2].
Typically
collected
in
wastewater
lagoons

Fig.
1

animal
waste
threatens
to
leak
into
rivers,
creeks
and
underground
water
sources
linked
to
public
water
supply
and
thus
is
a
constant
source
of
legitimate
public
concern.
Fig.
1.
Animal
waste
leakage
(left)
and
a
wastewater
lagoon
(right).
Factory
farms
are
also
a
number
one
source
of
methane
and
a
major
source
nitrous
oxide
accounting
for
65%
of
worldwide
emissions
[3].
Methane
is
20-­‐times
more
powerful
green
house
gas
than
CO2
while
nitrous
oxide
is
staggeringly
300
times
more
potent
than
carbon
dioxide
[4].
Therefore
factory
farms
besides
being
an
environmental
hazard
are
a
significant
contributor
to
the
climate
change
and
global
warming.
Clearly,
something
has
to
be
done
about
animal
waste
problem.
Existing
Approaches
to
Treating
Animal
Waste
Problem
A
typical
approach
for
animal
wastewater
treatment
is
a
collection
of
waste
in
lagoons
with
subsequent
anaerobic
decomposition
[5].
Other
conventional
approaches
include
sedimentation,
aeration,
composting,
and
mechanical
treatment
[6].
These
approaches
suffer
from
high
costs
associated
with
the
need
for
careful
management,
infrastructure
and
machinery
and
generally
do
not
eliminate
the
threat
of
public
water
supply
contamination
or
greenhouse
gasses
emissions.
Novel
approaches
to
treating
animal
waste
problem
amount
to
a
conversion
of
biomass
to
energy
or
manure
to
fuel
[7,
8]
and
are
clearly
superior
to
wastewater
lagoons
since
they
eliminate
both
greenhouse
gas
emissions
and
somewhat
the
threat
of
public
water
supply
contamination.
On
the
flipside
the
construction
and
maintenance
costs
(~$1,000,000
USD)
of
the
biomass-­‐to-­‐fuel
conversion
facilities
are
substantial
and
even
higher
than
that
of
traditional
wastewater
treatment
methods
and
therefore
largely
offset
the
immediate
economic
benefits
of
these
new
technologies.
In
principle,
wastewater
treatment
is
an
energy
problem.
Given
the
unlimited
amount
energy
water
can
simply
be
boiled
in
the
presence
of
oxygen
thus
eliminating
all
microbal
contaminants
and
oxidizing
toxic
organic
compounds.
In
practice,
however,
heating
large
volumes
of
water
is
economically
unfeasible
due
to
high
energy
costs:
e.g.
it
takes
625
KWh
of
power
(or
$44
USD
at
$0.07/kwh)
to
boil
away
1
ton
of
water.
Thus,
a
better
wastewater
treatment
technology
corresponds
to
a
more
efficient
energy
transfer
from
the
power
source
(or
the
environment)
that
does
not
result
in
undesirable
bulk
water
heating,
which
amounts
to
energy
waste.
Fortunately,
such
technologies
exist
and
cavitation
is
one
of
them.
Novel
Approach

Cavitation
Cavitation
is
the
formation
of
empty
cavities
in
a
liquid
by
high
forces
and
the
immediate
implosion
of
them
[9].
Cavitation
can
be
induced
hydrodynamically
by
creating
fast
low-­‐pressure
liquid
flows
that
result
in
boiling
of
dissolved
gasses,
or
ultrasonically
by
subjecting
liquid
to
high
power
acoustic
pressures
that
essentially
tear
the
liquid
apart
by
creating
vapor-­‐filled
cavities
(bubbles)

Fig.
2.
The
unique
feature
of
cavitation
process
is
that
the
resulting
bubbles
are
short-­‐lived
and
characterized
by
high
extreme
temperatures,
pressures
and
liquid
velocities
accompanying
bubble
collapse.
In
fact
cavitation
bubbles
can
be
viewed
as
extreme
energy
concentrators
that
focus
applied
acoustic
energy
by
as
much
as
a
factor
of
1012
[10].
Temperatures
in
excess
of
30,000K
has
been
measured
in
collapsing
bubble
cores
and
pressures
in
excess
of
1,000
of
atmospheres
have
been
inferred
[11].
What
makes
cavitation
process
so
attractive
is
that
the
extreme
conditions
are
achieved
locally
(i.e.
within
bubbles)
while
the
bulk
of
the
liquid
remains
cool.
In
other
words

cavitation
is
an
efficient
process
akin
of
‘surgical
strike’
as
opposed
to
‘carpet
bombing’
of
bulk
liquid
boiling.
Fig
2.
Creation
and
implosion
of
cavitation-­‐induced
bubbles.
Cavitation
has
been
known
for
many
years
and
for
a
long
time
has
been
considered
a
parasitic
process
as
it
results
in
loss
of
pump
/
impeller
/
propeller
efficiency
and
even
massive
damage
to
surfaces
in
contact
with
collapsing
bubbles

Fig.
3

which
is
yet
another
testament
to
the
power
of
the
energy
concentration
offered
by
the
cavitation
process.
Fig.
3.
Cavitation
damage
to
a
liquid
pump
turbine.
Because
of
its
unusual
properties
cavitation
has
become
a
subject
of
intense
research
in
the
past
decade.
New
applications
of
cavitation
include
ultrasonic
cleaning
[15]
and
algae
control
[12],
chemical
processing
or
sonochemistry
[10],
petroleum
cracking
and
upgrading
[13],
and
even
industrial
wastewater
treatment
[14].
For
the
purpose
of
wastewater
treatment
cavitation
offers
the
following
two
mechanisms
of
action:
1) Shockwaves
resulting
from
powerful
bubble
implosions
disrupt
solid
particles
and
thus,
given
sufficient
treatment
time,
completely
pulverize
solid
suspensions.
This
mechanism
is
employed
commercially
for
biological
cell
disruption
on
a
lab
scale
as
an
alternative
to
sterilization
[15,
19].
2) Molecular
radicalization
results
from
extreme
temperatures
and
pressures
found
in
collapsing
bubble
cores
[11].
Water
molecules
are
known
to
disassociate
under
the
action
of
cavitation
[10]
thus
boosting
chemical
activity
of
water
due
to
pH
factor
increase
and
formation
of
hydrogen
peroxide
(H2O2).
ORP
factor
is
also
affected
and
results
in
improved
oxidation
properties
of
heavily
cavitated
water.
Thus,
the
action
of
molecular
radicalization
can
be
summarized
as
disassociation
and
oxidation
of
complex
organic
and
synthetic
compounds
contaminating
water
as
far
as
water
treatment
process
is
concerned.
From
the
theoretical
standpoint
there
is
no
question
that
cavitation
can
be
an
effective
means
for
water
purification,
consequently
a
number
of
commercially
viable
industrial
and
residential
wastewater
treatment
schemes
have
been
proposed
[17].
In
all
of
the
proposed
schemes
the
crucial
point
is
cavitation
efficiency
and
power
consumption.
Conventional
ways
for
producing
cavitation
involve
ultrasonic
generation
of
acoustic
waves
(e.g.
using
piezoelectric
transducers
or
sonotrodes)
and
hydrodynamic
cavitation
[18]
involving
whistles
(where
water
is
passed
through
one
or
more
narrow
orifices)
are
not
particularly
efficient.
E.g.
typical
efficiency
of
ultrasonic
cavitation
is
only
1-­‐10%
and
thus
is
not
commercially
attractive.
Fortunately,
there
is
another
way
to
generate
high
power
density
of
acoustic
waves
in
cavitating
liquid,
which
involves
rotor-­‐stator
apparata
[20].
Such
machines
are
built
by
our
company
and
similar
machines
are
available
from
various
manufacturers,
such
as
Arisdyne
(USA),
Kavitus
(Ukraine),
etc.
The
advantage
of
rotor-­‐stator
machines
is
that
they
rely
on
hydrodynamically
induced
cavitation
and
violent
water
jet
formation,
which
allows
transfer
of
~80-­‐90%
of
mechanical
energy
into
acoustic
energy
of
cavitation.
The
commercially
available
machines
are
primarily
used
for
petrochemical
processing,
biodiesel
production,
fuel
emulsion
preparation
and
are
yet
to
be
applied
to
wastewater
treatment
problem,
which
is
the
next
logical
step
as
far
as
the
exploration
of
the
utility
of
these
devices
is
concerned.
Technical
Description
Our
Approach

Hydrodynamic
Cavitation
We
propose
to
explore
the
efficiency
of
hydrodynamic
cavitation
using
rotor-­‐stator
machines
built
by
our
company
to
wastewater
treatment
problem
with
the
objective
to
develop
a
system
suitable
for
animal
wastewater
processing
thus
addressing
an
important
and
pressing
need
in
the
area
of
public
safety
and
climate
change.
Background
and
Preliminary
Data
Our
company
researches
and
builds
cavitation
equipment
for
petrochemical
processing
(e.g.
heavy
oil
cracking)
and
energy
research.
A
typical
machine
is
shown
on
fig.
3.
The
overall
machine
design
is
reminiscent
of
centripetal
pump
in
which
cavitation
is
maximized
as
opposed
to
being
reduced.
The
machine
shown
on
fig.
3
is
driven
by
a
50
HP
motor
and
has
a
maximum
throughput
of
20-­‐40
gallons
per
minute
(GPM).
Fig.
3.
Cavitation
rotor-­‐stator
machine
built
by
our
company.
The
internal
components
of
our
rotor-­‐stator
design
are
shown
on
fig.
4.
Fig.
4.
The
inside
view
of
rotor-­‐stator
cavitation
machine
built
by
our
companies.
The
machine
cover
is
removed
showing
the
impeller
and
the
perforated
rotor.
Water
is
forced
by
the
impeller
through
the
rotor
slots
under
high
pressure

this
is
where
cavitation
occurs.
Under
normal
conditions
the
liquid
to
be
processed
is
fed
through
the
4”
input
pipe
(center
of
the
stainless
steel
stator
enclosure,
fig.
3)
and
outputted
through
the
2”
exit
pipe
at
the
top
of
the
stator
enclosure.
The
machine
is
fully
capable
of
processing
viscous
substances
such
as
heavy
bitumen
and
does
not
choke
on
occasional
garbage.
Thus
feeding
animal
wastewater
or
any
kind
of
liquid
substance
with
substantial
solid
content
does
not
present
a
problem.
While
we
have
initially
designed
the
machine
to
work
on
hydrocarbons
we
have
performed
the
following
measurements
on
water,
these
constitute
our
preliminary
‘seed
data’
that
in
our
view
justifies
an
expanded
investigation
into
wastewater
treatment
problem:
1) Typical
stator
pressure
is
80
psi
(6
atmospheres),
pressures
in
excess
of
200
psi
are
possible
with
extended
impeller
blades
(not
shown
on
fig.
4).
High
stator
pressure
is
instrumental
in
achieving
very
strong
cavitation.
In
fact
under
120
psi
the
cavitation
is
already
10-­‐times
more
extreme
than
a
typical
lab
experiment
involving
ultrasonic
cavitation.
2) Typical
throughput

20
GPM
at
25kW
and
40
GPM
at
40kW.
3) Typical
pH
changes
from
7.5
(neutral
non-­‐processed
water)
to
6.0-­‐6.5
(acidic).
4) Solid
particle
destruction

ground
coffee
beans
were
run
through
the
machine
with
1mm
grains,
the
resulting
ground
mix
suspension
contained
such
a
small
particles
(micron
and
submicron)
that
we
could
not
identify
their
size.
5) Chemical
reaction
activation

we
have
ran
a
1-­‐mole
solution
of
potassium
iodine
(KI)
through
the
machine
and
obtained
a
solid
powder-­‐like
sediment
indicative
of
intensive
sonochemical
reactions
that
we
were
unable
to
produce
during
ultrasonic
cavitation.
6) Efficiency

the
machine
is
81%
efficient
in
converting
electric
energy
into
acoustic
energy
(the
motor
is
96%
efficient
and
the
frequency
control
unit
is
95%
efficient,
the
remaining
10%
losses
amount
to
bearing
heating,
water
pumping
power
and
hydrodynamic
losses).
7) Estimated
acoustic
power
density

1
MW/m2.
8) Microbal
specimen
elimination

for
a
test
we
have
circulated
25G
of
pond
water
through
the
machine
for
10
minutes;
at
the
end
of
the
test
we
were
not
able
to
detect
any
microorganisms
in
the
processed
water.
Feasibility
Evaluation
In
our
opinion
the
preliminary
data
warrants
further
investigation
into
the
wastewater
treatment
using
our
rotor-­‐stator
equipment
because
the
process
may
be
feasible
on
commercial
scale.
E.g.
20
GPM
processing
rate
at
25
kW
of
electric
power
results
in
20
GPM
x
3.78
L/Gal
x
60
min
/
25
kW
=
181L
of
treated
water
per
kWh,
which
is
equivalent
to
$0.38
USD
per
ton
of
wastewater
(assuming
$0.07/kWh).
This
estimate
makes
hydrodynamic
cavitation
process
over
100
more
efficient
compared
to
brute
force
water
boiling.
Based
on
the
preliminary
data,
as
a
result
of
the
cavitation
processing
we
expect
the
following
transformations
in
the
processed
water:
1) Large
solid
particles
to
be
pulverized
to
micron-­‐size;
2) Complete
elimination
of
microbal
specimen
(including
pathological
bacteria);
3) At
least
some
degree
of
complex
organic
molecule
destruction
and
oxidation
due
to
sonochemical
reactions
and
oxidation
due
to
the
increase
in
pH
and
other
factors
accompanying
intense
cavitation
bubble
collapse.
In
other
words,
cavitation
wastewater
treatment
may
be
suitable
for
eliminating
Class
A
biosolids,
including
pathogenic
bacteria
and
pharmaceuticals
(e.g.
via
increased
pH).
Possible
Commercial
Utilization
Scenarios
Assuming
that
the
detailed
feasibility
study
produces
positive
results,
we
envision
several
applications
of
the
cavitation
wastewater
treatment:
1) In
the
factory
farm
setting
the
cavitation
pump
can
be
used
to
pre-­‐treat
water/manure
mixture
discharged
into
the
lagoon
thus
making
the
lagoon
less
hazardous;
2) Lagoons
with
large
water
content
can
be
pumped
out
with
the
cavitation
pump
and
because
the
cavitation
process
eliminates
pathogenic
bacteria
and
class
A
biosolids
the
pumped-­‐out
water
can
be
reused
for
irrigation;
3) The
cavitation
water
treatment
system
can
be
combined
with
methane
production
via
anaerobic
bacteria
forming
a
closed-­‐loop
system.
While
the
latter
scenario
is
the
most
capital
intensive
in
terms
of
upfront
hardware
requirements,
it
is
the
most
lucrative
in
the
long
run.
In
this
scenario
the
wastewater
or
sludge
(regardless
of
the
solids
content)
can
be
processed
as
follows:
1) The
liquid
is
pretreated
with
the
cavitation
pump
to
eliminate
all
bacterial
specimen,
toxins
and
pulverize
solid
particles;
2) The
pretreated
water/sludge
is
deposited
in
a
tank
and
mixed
with
anaerobic
organisms
for
methane
production;
3) Due
to
elimination
of
competing
microbial
species
and
food
particle
pulverization
one
can
expect
‘explosive’
methane
production
from
the
tank;
4) The
methane
can
be
collected
in
a
tank
and
used
for
the
farm
needs
such
as
heating
and
powering
generators
with
portion
of
the
power
feeding
the
pump
and
auxiliary
equipment
necessary
to
support
the
process;
5) The
digested
solid
residue
can
be
dried
and
pelletized
and
used
for
fertilization
thus
producing
a
closed-­‐loop
and
waste-­‐free
system.
In
fact
a
similar
scenario
is
already
realized
in
pilot
projects
in
Russian
Federation
(e.g.
“Special
Technologies”,
Moscow).
But
the
equipment
is
not
yet
available
for
export
outside
the
country.
Specific
Aims
During
Phase
I
of
the
project
we
plan
to
achieve
the
following:
1) Test
our
cavitation
pump
using
actual
wastewater
samples
obtained
from
nearby
farms
and
University
Area
Joint
Authority
(sewage)
to
determine
the
degree
of
pathogen
removal
possible
with
our
existing
equipment
(the
water
samples
will
be
analyzed
at
Penn
State’s
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab,
which
specializes
on
water
quality
control).
We
will
pay
special
attention
to
bacterial
and
chemical
content
as
well
as
the
solid
particle
size
before
and
after
treatment.
2) Experiment
with
various
pump
operating
modes
to
optimize
throughput
while
maintaining
satisfactory
treated
water
quality.
3) Based
on
the
data
so
obtained
design
and
build
an
improved
cavitation
pump
geared
towards
maximum
wastewater
treatment
efficiency.
The
new
pump
will
serve
as
a
commercial
device
prototype
for
Phase
II
of
the
project.
Potential
Post-­‐Applications
Given
successful
completion
of
Phases
I
and
II
of
the
project
we
intend
to
build
and
market
the
following
range
of
wastewater
treatment
equipment:
1) Cavitation
pump
for
sewer
water
treatment
for
municipal
applications
(including
human
waste);
2) Cavitation
pump
for
animal
farm
wastewater
pre-­‐treatment
and
lagoon
water
purification;
3) Closed-­‐loop
system
that
combines
cavitation
water
treatment
with
anaerobic
methane
production.
The
target
efficiency
is
better
than
$0.40/ton
of
treated
waste.
Therefore
the
application
of
the
activator
pump
to
wastewater
treatment
directly
addresses
the
clean
water
requirements
and
greenhouse
gas
emission
standards
mandated
by
the
EPA
for
the
farming
industry.
The
cavitation
pump
is
a
simple
and
low-­‐
cost
solution
to
the
problem
that
is
more
environmentally
friendly
and
easier
to
implement
then
existing
wastewater
treatment
techniques.
Potential
additional
applications
include
adaptation
of
the
hydrodynamically
induced
cavitation
technology
to
various
specific
chemical
substances
elimination
(focusing
on
most
common
liquid
pollutants),
further
development
of
crude
and
liquefied
bitumen
cracking
and
nanoparticle
production.
Satisfaction
of
the
Public
Interest
If
successful
the
activator
pump
will
address
the
following
important
Strategic
Goals:
-­‐ Sustainability
in
Rural
Farm
Economic,
achieved
by
eliminating
or
reducing
wastewater
lagoons
and
enabling
wastewater
recycling
and
reuse
-­‐ Improvement
of
Nation’s
Health,
achieved
by
eliminating
or
reducing
wastewater
lagoons
and
thus
mitigating
public
water
supply
contamination
threats
due
to
toxic
waste
leakage,
elimination
of
putrid
farm-­‐associated
orders
-­‐ Protection
of
the
Environment,
achieved
by
minimizing
hazardous
qualities
of
activator-­‐treated
wastewater,
reduction
or
elimination
of
the
wastewater
lagoons.
Experiment
Plan
To
test
water
treatment
efficiently
of
the
cavitation
pump
we
will
build
an
experimental
setup
similar
to
the
one
shown
on
fig.
5
except
that
we
be
mounted
on
a
truck.
Currently
the
cavitation
pump
is
powered
by
an
electric
motor
requiring
a
3-­‐phase
power,
which
makes
it
necessary
to
employ
a
diesel
generator
to
power
the
pump
in
the
field
conditions.
The
bypass
pipe
(see
on
fig.
5)
will
be
used
to
control
the
flow
rate
and
cavitation
time.
Fig.
5.
Cavitation
pump
water
experiment
with
a
single
barrel.
The
pump
will
move
the
wastewater
from
the
reservoir
and
back
and
we
shall
obtain
2-­‐3
samples
of
the
running
water
to
the
following
tests:
• Solids
content;
• Solids
size;
• Total
coliform
and
E.
coli
bacteria;
• pH;
• Nitrate-­‐nitrogen
content;
• Phosphate
and
sulfate
content;
• Ammonia
content;
• Total
organic
carbon
(TOC)
content;
• Hormone
content
(estrogen).
The
tests
will
be
subcontracted
to
Penn
State’s
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab.
The
variables
that
we
will
control
are:
• Stator
pressure
(monitored
via
manometer);
• Flow
rate
(monitored
via
flow
meter);
• Cavitation
intensity
(monitored
acoustically
via
high
frequency
pressure
transducer
connected
to
spectrum
analyzer);
• Stator
temperature
and
pH
value
(monitored
via
pH
probe
with
RTD
thermocouple).
The
objective
of
the
trial
runs
on
various
water
samples
is
to
determine
optimal
set
of
control
variables
that
results
in
complete
elimination
of
bacteria
and
reduction
in
TOC,
nitrate,
phosphate
and
ammonia
content.
Work
Schedule
As
a
part
of
Phase
I
of
the
project
we
plan
to
do
the
following:
1) Procure
a
flatbed
truck
and
a
mobile
diesel
generator
(Week
1)
a. The
work
will
be
performed
by
Technician.
2) Mount
cavitation
pump
on
a
truck
(Week
3)
a. The
work
will
be
performed
by
PI
and
Co-­‐PI
with
the
help
of
Technician.
b. Machining
work
will
be
subcontracted
to
Butler
Machine
Shop.
3) Perform
a
series
of
field
tests
with
this
mobile
system
and
accumulate
trials
data
(Week
5)
a. Field
work
will
be
performed
by
Technician.
b. Advice
on
location
selection,
test
configuration
and
execution
will
be
given
by
Consultant.
c. Analytical
work
will
be
subcontracted
to
Penn
State’s
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab.
4) Analyze
the
data
to
determine
the
most
efficient
operating
mode
and
infer
cavitation
parameters
from
it
(Week
9)
a. The
work
will
be
performed
by
PI
with
the
help
of
Consultant.
5) Using
the
so
obtained
cavitation
parameters
design
and
build
an
improved
and
scaled
down
version
of
the
pump
that
does
not
require
3-­‐phase
power
and
can
work
from
120V
(Week
10)
a. The
work
will
be
performed
by
PI
and
Co-­‐PI
with
the
help
of
Technician.
b. Machining
work
will
be
subcontracted
to
Butler
Machine
Shop.
6) Repeat
a
series
of
field
tests
to
confirm
the
efficiency
of
the
redesigned
pump
(Week
30)
a. Field
work
will
be
performed
by
Technician.
b. Advice
on
location
selection,
test
configuration
and
execution
will
be
given
by
Consultant.
c. Analytical
work
will
be
subcontracted
to
Penn
State’s
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab.
7) Write
final
report
(Week
32)
a. Work
will
be
performed
by
PI.
References
[1]
M.D.
Allen,
Understanding
State
Adoptions
of
Factory
Farm
Regulation,
proc.
of
Western
Political
Science
Association,
Albuquerque,
New
Mexico,
2006.
[2]
S.
Wing,
S.
Freedman,
L.
Band,
The
Potential
Impact
of
Flooding
on
Confined
Animal
Feeding
Operations
in
Eastern
North
Carolina,
Environmental
Health
Perspectives,
110,
387-­‐390,
2002
[3]
Sources
and
Emissions:
Methane,
U.S.
Environmental
Protection
Agency,
2006,
http://epa.gov/methane/sources.html
[4]
Climate
Change:
Methane,
U.S.
Environmental
Protection
Agency,
2006,
http://www.epa.gov/methane/
[5]
R.
Zhang,
Biology
and
Engineering
of
Animal
Wastewater
Lagoons,
http://groups.ucanr.org/LNM/files/678.pdf
[6]
S.
Mukhtar,
Animal
Manure
and
Process-­‐Generated
Wastewater
Treatment,
2003,
http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/waste_mgt/natlcenter/modules/Module_5(new).doc
[7]
Biomass
Energy:
Manure
for
Fuel,
Texas
State
Energy
Conservation
Office,
2008,
http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/re_biomass-­‐manure.htm
[8]
B.
Min
et
al.,
Electricity
generation
from
swine
wastewater
using
microbial
fuel
cells,
Water
Research,
39,
4961–4968,
2005
[9]
C.
Brennen,
Cavitation
and
Bubble
Dynamics,
Oxford
University
Press,
1995
[10]
M.
Margulis,
Sonochemistry
and
Cavitation,
Gordon
and
Breach,
1993
[11]
D.
Flanigan,
K.
Suslick,
Internally
confined
plasma
in
an
imploding
bubble,
Nature
Physics,
6,
pp.
598-­‐601,
2010
[12]
LG
Sound,
http://www.lgsonic.com
[13]
New
Technologies
2000,
LLC,
http://www.NewTech2000.ru/index_eng.php,
2008
[14]
A.
Chakinala,
Industrial
wastewater
treatment
using
hydrodynamic
cavitation
and
heterogeneous
advanced
Fenton
processing,
Chemical
Engineering,
152,
498-­‐502,
2009
[15]
L.
Azar,
Cavitation
in
Ultrasonic
Cleaning
and
Cell
Disruption,
Controlled
Environments,
2009,
http://www.megasonics.com/Cavitation.pdf
[16]
Y.
Benito
et
al.,
Hydrodynamic
Cavitation
as
low-­‐cost
OP
for
wastewater
treatment:
preliminary
results
and
a
new
design
approach,
WIT
Transactions
on
Ecology
and
the
Environment,
80,
p.
495
[17]
P.
Gogate,
A.
Pandit,
A
review
of
imperative
technologies
for
wastewater
treatment
I:
oxidation
technologies
at
ambient
conditions,
Advances
in
Environmental
Research,
8,
2004,
pp.
501-­‐551
[18]
P.
Gogate,
Cavitation:
an
auxiliary
technique
in
wastewater
treatment
schemes,
Advances
in
Environmental
Research,
6,
2002,
pp.
335-­‐358
[19]
P.
Gogate,
Hydrodynamic
Cavitation
for
Food
and
Water
Processing,
Food
and
Bioprocess
Technology,
4,
6,
pp.
996-­‐1011
[20]
M.
Promtov,
Pulsation
Apparata
of
Rotor
Type:
Theory
and
Practice,
Mashinostroyeniye,
2001
(In
Russian)
Facilities
The
Hanger
Our
company
has
a
800
sq.
ft.
lab
at
Penn
Eagle
Industrial
Park
at
100
Rolling
Ridge
Drive,
Bellefonte,
PA
suitable
to
conduct
the
proposed
investigation.
Water
Testing
We
plan
on
contracting
Penn
State
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab
for
water
testing:
http://www.aasl.psu.edu/waterprogram_main.html.
The
lab
provides
services
on
commercial
basis
for
local
businesses
and
farmers.
Machining
We
plan
to
subcontract
machining
work
to
Butler
Machine
Shop,
Bellefonte,
PA.
Equipment
We
plan
to
acquire
the
following
major
equipment
necessary
for
conducting
of
the
research
under
this
proposal:
1) Used
flatbed
truck,
Ford
F-­‐150
or
similar:
$20,000
2) Towable
diesel
generator,
Magnum
40
kW
or
similar:
$15,000
The
company
has
all
other
equipment
necessary
to
conduct
the
work.
Budget
Justification
Diesel
Generator
Is
necessary
to
provide
40
kW
of
3-­‐phase
power
for
the
cavitation
pump
during
the
field
trials.
Flatbed
Truck
Is
necessary
to
transport
the
cavitation
pump
and
the
generator
to
field
locations.
Lab
Testing
$150-­‐200/test
(Penn
State
Agricultural
Analytical
Services
Lab)
Materials
for
Machining
AC
motor,
stainless
steel:
$8,000
Max
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov,
Ph.D.
(coPI)
President,
Quantum
Potential
Corporation
Assistant
Professor,
Pennsylvania
State
University
Biographical
Sketch
Dr.
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov
is
the
director
of
and
the
vision
behind
the
Quantum
Potential
Corporation.
The
mission
of
the
company
is
identification,
analysis
and
exploration
of
promising
yet
neglected
lines
of
research
with
the
focus
on
high-­‐
risk/high-­‐payoff
projects
(inline
with
latest
federal
initiatives).
During
the
past
decade
Quantum
Potential
has
amassed
a
vast
portfolio
of
research,
sponsored
and
launched
a
number
of
research
project
and
obtained
patent-­‐pending
commercializable
results.
Currently
Quantum
Potential
is
actively
pursuing
cooperation
with
NASA,
NIH
and
DoE.
Main
projects
include
cavitation
hydrocarbon
processing
with
applications
to
heavy
oil
upgrading
and
electromagnetic
equipment
for
medical
treatment.
Dr.
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov’s
role
is
that
of
a
physicist,
engineer,
and
administrator.
Having
cultivated
broad
encyclopedic
knowledge
from
various
disciplines
in
science
Dr.
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov
is
working
on
pursuing
collaboration
between
like-­‐minded
individuals
and
organizations
in
order
to
facilitate
the
nucleation
of
the
next
technological
breakthrough.
Of
particular
relevance
to
this
proposal
is
Dr.
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov’s
experience
with
cavitation
equipment
and
optimal-­‐lag
ultrasonic
pulse
shaping.
Education
2000-­‐2001,
Moscow
Institute
of
Electronic
Engineering,
Ph.D.,
Computer
Engineering
1997-­‐1998,
The
University
of
Tulsa,
Ph.D.
Candidate,
Computer
Science
1992-­‐1997,
Moscow
Institute
of
Electronic
Engineering,
M.S.,
Computer
Technology
Positions
2006-­‐present,
Pennsylvania
State
University,
Assistant
Professor
of
Computer
Science
2002-­‐present,
Quantum
Potential
Corporation,
Director
Patents
&
Publications
Dr.
Fomitchev-­‐Zamilov
has
authored
two
books
and
dozens
of
papers
and
articles
in
the
field
of
computer
science,
engineering
and
physics;
he
also
holds
two
patents.
Relevant
Publications
Fomitchev,
M.I.,
US6167758,
Ultrasound
Imaging
Device
that
Uses
Optimal
Lag
Pulse
Shaping
Filters,
issued
01/02/2001.
Fomitchev
et
al.,
Ultrasonic
Pulse
Shaping
with
Optimal
Lag
Filters,
International
Journal
of
Imaging
Systems
and
Technology,
10,
5,
pp.
397-­‐403,
1999
Sergei
Godin
(PI)
R&D
Director,
Quantum
Potential
Corporation
Biographical
Sketch
Mr.
Godin
is
an
experienced
practitioner
and
an
exceptional
experimentalist.
He
is
an
expert
in
electrical
engineering,
digital
/
analog
electronics,
measurement
devices
and
experimental
setup
design.
Prior
to
joining
Quantum
Potential
Mr.
Godin
has
worked
as
an
engineer
at
the
Central
Research
Institute
for
Communications
(Moscow),
then
as
a
research
associate
at
IMASH
(Moscow)
and
for
the
following
12
years
as
a
research
associate
at
the
Institute
for
High
Temperatures
(IHT)
of
the
Russian
Academy
of
Sciences.
During
his
tenure
at
IHT
Mr.
Godin
was
a
key
investigator
in
a
number
of
research
projects
focused
on
sonoluminescence,
cavitation,
plasma
discharges,
and
nuclear
fusion.
Because
of
his
prior
experience
with
hydrodynamic
cavitation
and
oil
cracking
pumps
Mr.
Godin
is
the
best
qualified
person
to
lead
the
project.
Mr.
Godin
has
a
valuable
experience
of
research
commercialization
and
has
a
knack
for
discovering
multiple
practical
applications
of
scientific
ideas.
He
leads
a
diverse
group
of
cross-­‐disciplinary
researchers.
Besides
his
duties
at
Quantum
Potential
Mr.
Godin
servers
as
a
consultant
on
a
oil
cracking
research
project
for
a
large
Russian
oil
and
gas
company.
Mr.
Godin
has
co-­‐authored
a
book
on
fundamental
physics,
numerous
research
papers
and
holds
several
patents.
Education
1988-­‐1989,
Moscow
State
University,
MechMat,
Ph.D.
Candidate
1982-­‐1983,
Moscow
Institute
of
Radio-­‐engineering
and
Automation,
Certificate
of
Accomplishment
in
Signal
Processing
1976-­‐1981,
Moscow
Institute
of
Communications
and
Informatics,
M.S.,
Electrical
Engineering
Positions
1996-­‐2008,
Institute
for
High
Temperatures
of
Russian
Acad.
of
Sci.,
Research
Associate
2010-­‐present,
Quantum
Potential
Corporation,
Research
Associate
Relevant
Publications
1. Karimov,
A.R.,
Godin,
S.M.,
Coupled
radial–azimuthal
oscillations
in
twirling
cylindrical
plasmas,
Physica
Scripta,
80,
3,
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Bruce
Logan,
Ph.D.
(Consultant)
Kappe
Professor
of
Environmental
Engineering,
Pennsylvania
State
University
Biographical
Sketch
Dr.
Logan
is
an
expert
in
water
treatment
and
environmental
engineering.
He
is
engaged
in
the
development
of
new
bioelectrochemical
technologies
for
achieving
an
energy
sustainable
water
infrastructure.
Logan
and
his
collaborators
have:
invented
a
method
for
sustainable
hydrogen
production
using
microbial
electrolysis
cells
(MECs);
invented
a
method
for
water
desalination
that
does
not
require
electrical
energy
from
the
grid
or
high
pressures
called
microbial
desalination
cells;
improved
direct
bioelectricity
generation
by
several
orders
of
magnitude
in
microbial
fuel
cells
(MFCs).
Other
research
has
included
the
discovery
of
how
large
aggregates
form
in
the
ocean,
called
marine
snow,
that
can
help
to
sequester
carbon
to
deep
sediments;
and
molecular
and
nanoscale
techniques
to
study
particle
dynamics
and
microbial
adhesion
in
engineered
and
natural
systems;
microbial
adhesion
and
transport.
Education
1986
Ph.D.
in
Environmental
Engineering,
University
of
California,
Berkeley,
CA
1980
M.S.
in
Environmental
Engineering,
Rensselaer
Polytechnic
Institute,
Troy,
NY
1979
B.S.
in
Chemical
Engineering,
Rensselaer
Polytechnic
Institute,
Troy,
NY
Appointments
Home Dept: Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering, Dept. of Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Chemical Engineering; Nuclear & Mechanical Engineering
Director: Engineering Energy & Environmental Institute
Director: Hydrogen Energy (H2E) Center
Dr. Logan has numerous patents, publications, and awards. For complete list of his
accomplishments please see his CV at Complete
CV:
http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/enve/logan/Logan_CV.pdf

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