Alveolar air and urine analyses as biomarkers of exposure to trihalomethanes in an indoor swimming pool.

MedLine Citation:
PMID:  18678040     Owner:  NLM     Status:  MEDLINE
The exposure of workers and swimmers at an indoor swimming pool to trihalomethanes (THMs) as a consequence of water chlorination was evaluated by analyzing alveolar air and urine samples. Environmental monitoring of THMs in water and ambient air was also performed in order to assess the possible correlation between environmental and biological samples. The sampling was done concurrently, taking the urine and alveolar air samples before and after the work shift for 15 workers and the swimming activity for 12 swimmers. A high THM uptake was observed in alveolar air and urine of subjects exposed, with chloroform being the most abundant THM. Mean chloroform levels in alveolar air and urine before exposure were 4 microg/ m3 and 475 ng/L, respectively. After 2 h of exposure, concentration increases of ca. 8 times in alveolar air and 2 times in urine were observed in workers. After 1 h swimming, the increases found in swimmers were ca. 20 and 3 times in alveolar air and urine, respectively. High increases have also been observed in bromodichloromethane levels. We have obtained excellent correlations between the chloroform concentrations found in the swimming pool ambient air/alveolar air, and between the urine/ alveolar air of the participants after exposure (r > 0.9). In conclusion, alveolar air provides better response sensitivity and shorter reaction time to external exposure than urine, being therefore the most sensitive biomarker.
J Caro; M Gallego
Publication Detail:
Type:  Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov’t
Journal Detail:
Title:  Environmental science & technology     Volume:  42     ISSN:  0013-936X     ISO Abbreviation:  Environ. Sci. Technol.     Publication Date:  2008 Jul
Date Detail:
Created Date:  2008-08-05     Completed Date:  2008-10-09     Revised Date:  –
Medline Journal Info:
Nlm Unique ID:  0213155     Medline TA:  Environ Sci Technol     Country:  United States
Other Details:
Languages:  eng     Pagination:  5002-7     Citation Subset:  IM
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Campus of Rabanales, University of Córdoba, E-14071 Córdoba, Spain.
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MeSH Terms
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*
Biological Markers / analysis, urine
Breath Tests
Chloroform / analysis
Environmental Monitoring / statistics & numerical data*
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Swimming Pools *
Trihalomethanes / analysis*, urine*
Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
Reg. No./Substance:
0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Trihalomethanes; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 67-66-3/Chloroform

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